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Bitcoin mining giant Bitmain has filed a lawsuit against a mystery hacker who allegedly stole bitcoin from one of the firm’s cryptocurrency exchange accounts.
According to the suit, which the China-based Bitmain filed on Nov. 7 in the US District Court for the Western District of Washington, the unknown hacker infiltrated Bitmain’s Binance account in April and stole funds from the firm.
However, perhaps to better conceal their identity, the hacker did not just attempt to withdraw Bitmain’s funds to their own bitcoin wallet. Rather, they used the bitcoin to artificially inflate the price of small-cap cryptocurrency MANA, the native ERC-20 token of virtual reality platform Decentraland.
Spurred by the irregular trades, the MANA price rocketed from $0.12 to $0.34 on Binance in the span of less than an hour. Even more remarkable, the global MANA price rose to $0.20 — a gain of 40 percent — meaning that a hack involving a single cryptocurrency exchange account single-handedly raised the nominal value of the MANA cryptocurrency’s market cap by more than $80 million.
Presumably, this allowed the hacker to sell MANA they were already holding at inflated prices, and, significantly, they could potentially have liquidated the funds on one or more separate crypto exchanges since the Bitmain pump disrupted the worldwide MANA market.
The suit itself alleges that, as part of the hacker’s wash trading scheme, they transferred approximately 2.3 million MANA to Binance from Seattle-based cryptocurrency exchange Bittrex. It further claims that, “upon information and belief,” the hacker sent the bitcoin that they accrued through wash trading MANA back to Bittrex.
Bitmain claims, that, as a result of the scheme, they lost approximately 617 BTC, worth $5.5 million at the time of the hack.
Commenting on the suit in their weekly “Crypto Caselaw Minute,” lawyers Stephen Palley and Nelson M. Rosario explained that, despite the best efforts of the hacker, this “John Doe suit” will likely allow Bitmain to subpoena account information from Bittrex and Binance, which could ultimately divulge the identity of the thief.
“What’s the lesson? It’s almost Captain Obvious territory folks: Stealing crypto from a centralized exchange leaves a lot of fingerprints. And your name doesn’t need to be known for you to get sued. Now that the lawsuit is on file, one assumes that Bitmain’s next step will be to issue subpoenas to Binance and other service providers, allowing it to identify the defendant.”
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Quy mô thị trường tiền ảo toàn cầu được dự đoán sẽ đạt hơn 1 nghìn tỷ USD vào năm 2027 với tốc độ CAGR là 11,2% trong giai đoạn dự báo. Xu hướng ngày càng tăng của các cá nhân ở các nước phát triển đối với các phương pháp trao đổi tiền ảo sẽ có tác động to lớn đến thị trường trong giai đoạn dự báo. Việc tích hợp công nghệ blockchain trong tiền điện tử để có các giao dịch nhanh chóng, an toàn và hiệu quả sẽ thúc đẩy sự tăng trưởng lành mạnh của thị trường trong những năm tới, được đề cập tới trong một báo cáo có tiêu đề quy mô thị trường tiền điện tử và dự báo từ 2020 – 2027, quy mô thị trường đã là 754,0 triệu USD vào năm 2019.submitted by san_giao_dich_tienao to u/san_giao_dich_tienao [link] [comments]
Tổng quan về tác động của COVID-19 đối với thị trường tiền ảo
Thị trường tiền ảo trong những năm tới
Sự xuất hiện của COVID-19 đã đưa thế giới vào bế tắc. Chúng tôi hiểu rằng cuộc khủng hoảng sức khỏe này đã mang lại tác động chưa từng có đối với các doanh nghiệp trong các ngành. Tuy nhiên, điều này cũng sẽ trôi qua. Sự hỗ trợ ngày càng tăng từ các chính phủ và một số công ty có thể giúp đỡ trong cuộc chiến chống lại căn bệnh rất dễ lây lan này. Có một số ngành đang gặp khó khăn và một số ngành đang phát triển mạnh. Nhìn chung, hầu hết mọi lĩnh vực đều được dự đoán là sẽ bị ảnh hưởng bởi đại dịch.
Chúng ta đang nỗ lực không ngừng để giúp doanh nghiệp duy trì và phát triển trong thời kỳ đại dịch COVID-19. Dựa trên kinh nghiệm và kiến thức chuyên môn của mình, chúng tôi sẽ cung cấp cho bạn phân tích tác động của sự bùng phát của Coronavirus trong các ngành để giúp bạn chuẩn bị cho tương lai.
Yếu tố thúc đẩy thị trường tiền ảo
Yếu tố thúc đẩy thị trường tiền ảo
Xu hướng gia tăng của tiền điện tử đã dẫn đến việc chấp nhận các đồng tiền kỹ thuật số như Bitcoins, Litecoin, Ethers…Phương thức giao dịch dễ dàng và linh hoạt do tiền điện tử cung cấp đã tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho các điều khoản hoạt động của Ngân hàng Trung ương về tiền tệ kỹ thuật số (CBDC) trên toàn thế giới. Ví dụ, Ngân hàng Thái Lan và Ngân hàng Trung ương Uruguay đã áp dụng bộ công cụ cho quy trình đánh giá CBDC của mình. Bộ công cụ cung cấp hướng dẫn để các quốc gia đạt được tiến bộ nhanh chóng và phân tích CBDC như một phương tiện trao đổi.
Hơn nữa, đầu tư ngày càng tăng vào blockchain và tiền điện tử của các công ty lớn sẽ cho phép mở rộng thị trường một cách nhanh chóng. Ví dụ, vào tháng 10 năm 2018, Qtum Chain Foundation, một nền tảng ứng dụng blockchain nguồn mở có trụ sở tại Singapore đã công bố hợp tác với Amazon Web Services (AWS) Trung Quốc để triển khai các hệ thống blockchain trên hệ thống đám mây AWS. Sự hợp tác sẽ cho phép người dùng AWS sử dụng Amazon Machine Images (AMI) để phát triển và xuất bản các hợp đồng thông minh một cách dễ dàng và hiệu quả.
Ngoài ra, việc giới thiệu các loại tiền kỹ thuật số độc đáo của các công ty nổi tiếng sẽ ảnh hưởng tích cực đến thị trường trong tương lai gần. Ví dụ: vào tháng 6 năm 2019, Facebook, Inc. đã công bố ra mắt một loại tiền kỹ thuật số có tên Libra. Libra sẽ cho phép khách hàng mua đồ hoặc gửi tiền cho người khác và rút tiền Libra trực tuyến hoặc tại các cửa hàng tạp hóa.
Yếu tố kìm hãm thị trường tiền ảoSự bùng phát của COVID-19 đã tác động tiêu cực đến nền kinh tế toàn cầu. Sự thoái trào trên thị trường chứng khoán đã trực tiếp tạo ra mối lo ngại cho Bitcoin. Ví dụ, ngày 12 tháng 3 năm 2020, giá Bitcoin giảm xuống dưới 4.000 USD sau khi chỉ số S&P ở Mỹ sụt giảm mạnh. Sự sụp đổ của thị trường đã kích thích các công ty blockchain tăng vốn đầu tư để bù đắp cho những tổn thất. Các nhà phân tích blockchain khổng lồ như Elliptic, Chainalysis và CipherTrace tuyên bố rằng họ đã cắt giảm nhân viên hoặc có ý định làm như vậy trước mắt để giảm bớt ảnh hưởng kinh tế từ đại dịch Coronavirus.
Ví dụ, CipherTrace đã giảm bớt công việc của các bộ phận quảng cáo và tiếp thị. Trong khi Elliptic đã loại bỏ 30% lao động ở Hoa Kỳ và Vương quốc Anh, Chainalysis đã lên kế hoạch giảm lương của nhân viên xuống 10% để giảm thiểu rủi ro
Phân tích một số thị trường trên thế giớiThị trường Bắc Mỹ đạt 250,9 triệu USD vào năm 2019 và được dự đoán sẽ tăng mạnh trong những năm tới. Sự tăng trưởng trong khu vực này được cho là do sự phổ biến ngày càng tăng của Bitcoin ở Mỹ. Sự hiện diện của các công ty lớn nổi tiếng sẽ thúc đẩy tăng trưởng khu vực trong giai đoạn dự báo. Châu Á Thái Bình Dương dự kiến sẽ chứng kiến sự tăng trưởng đáng kể trong giai đoạn dự báo do sự phát triển công nghệ và sự chấp nhận tiền ảo ở Nhật Bản.
Sự hợp tác ngày càng tăng giữa những người chơi chính sẽ thúc đẩy đáng kể sự tăng trưởng của thị trường tiền điện tử ở Châu Á Thái Bình Dương. Ví dụ, vào tháng 1 năm 2020, Z Corporation, Inc. và TaoTao, Inc. đã công bố liên doanh với cơ quan dịch vụ tài chính để mở rộng sự hiện diện của mình bằng cách xác nhận việc tuân thủ quy định tại thị trường Nhật Bản.
Tháng 1 năm 2020, Binance, một công ty trao đổi tiền điện tử cung cấp nền tảng giao dịch cho các loại tiền điện tử khác nhau đã thông báo mua lại sàn tiền ảo Bitcoin WazirX có trụ sở tại Mumbai, Ấn Độ. Với việc mua lại này, Binance sẽ có thể mở rộng danh mục kinh doanh của mình ở Ấn Độ.
Danh sách các công ty chính hoạt động trong thị trường tiền điện tử: Binance.com. (Malta) Bitfury Group Limited (Hà Lan) BitGo, Inc. (Hoa Kỳ) Bitmain Technologies Ltd. (Saint Bitts LLC) (Trung Quốc) Coinbase (Hoa Kỳ) CoinDesk.com (Hoa Kỳ) Tập đoàn Intel (Hoa Kỳ) Ripple Labs, Inc. (Hoa Kỳ) Xilinx (Hoa Kỳ).
Lời kếtVới sự phát triển của công nghệ kỹ thuật số thì thị trường tiền ảo nói chung và giá trị tiền ảo nói riêng chắc chắn sẽ ngày càng tăng. Vì vậy với những nhà đầu tư có tầm nhìn và hoạch định hướng đi cho tương lai thì sẽ biết đâu là cơ hội phải nắm bắt. Để biết rõ hơn thông tin và cập nhật tin tức mới nhất về thị trường tiền ảo đừng quên xem thêm những bài viết mới nhất của chúng tôi.Xem thêm: Giá trị tiền ảo Bitcoin sẽ đạt 1 triệu USD trong 5 năm tới?
With the development of blockchain technology, obtaining data on the chain only is no longer satisfying and how to bridge the real world and the blockchain world has always been the direction of the technological breakthrough. Under this background, Oracle Machine came to our attention. In particular, with the popularity of the DeFi concept, the industry starts to witness a boom of the application of Oracle Machine in financial derivatives, trading platforms, gambling games, and prediction markets.submitted by ThemisOracle to u/ThemisOracle [link] [comments]
At present, Oracle Machine represented by Themis is developing fast with a good momentum, leading the trend of the development of Oracle Machine and continuing to consolidate the basic technical support for the DeFi revolution. Themis’ mining system has been launched in the market, which is refreshing and appealing (see https://themisoracle.com/#/credit for details on the Themis mining).
90% of MIS, the native token of Themis, will be used for mining output. The entire mining mechanism runs through a distributed oracle protocol, which sets up three roles: data provider, data validator, and arbitration node. Reward and punishment mechanisms are applied to ensure the smooth ecological operation.
How does Themis mining work? Is it a new way to become wealthy? What are the characteristics? To answer these questions, we need to analyse the distribution mechanism, mining mechanism, and token value of Themis.
With a fairer mining mechanism, small and medium-sized miners can enjoy better benefits
One of the core values of blockchain is fairness and justice, and allowing everyone in the network to play a role in the system without permission. However, Bitcoin mining is now monopolized by several mining machine vendors such as Bitmain, leaving little space for other miners to participate. If those old PoW public chains, such as Bitcoin, has formed the head effect in mining, what about those new projects? Let's take Cosmos as an example. Since Binance joined its validator node, it has instantly ranked top with the strong financial strength and user base of the top exchange, making the small and medium nodes hard to participate.
After comparison, we can find that the mining mechanism of MIS is very friendly to ordinary users. Assuming that there are 12 mining transactions in a block, the ranking according to the MIS pledged by each transaction would be as follow:
The pledge ranking is based on the jump ranking weighting algorithm rather than the weighted average of the user pledge amount, which can prevent MIS from being controlled by a small number of people, avoid monopoly, creating a win-win situation in the Themis community.
Compared with other mining projects, Themis has introduced a unique pledge ranking method in the mining design. Users in the best ranking area will get the most benefits, which is a good mechanism guarantee for attracting more users to participate in mining. At the same time, it can lead to the decentralization of data providers, ensuring the decentralization of the oracle system and the positive development of the community.
How can miners join in Themis mining? The answer is to become a part of the ecology by playing the role of either data provider, data validator, or arbitration node.
The data provider is mainly responsible for providing various types of data, and the data validator verifies and challenges the data offered by the data provider and provides new data. The arbitration node arbitrates the query raised by the data validator and come up with the final result.
Both the data providers and validators of Themis need to pledge MIS to obtain the qualifications, and the caller of external data also needs to pay MIS assets when accessing the data of Themis oracles. If the data has been verified as correct, data providers and validators will receive mining rewards, and the more they pledge, the more rewards they will receive.
In the mining design of Themis, miners can acquire MIS by providing verifiable random number or offering the price of in-chain assets. Whenever miners call mining contracts, the system will charge no service fee (excluding the service fee of ETH). In addition, if no mining transaction occurs within a certain period of time, the first newly-emerging block containing mining transactions will acquire all the MIS rewards. In this way, miners can be encouraged to continue mining and maintain the ecological stability of Themis.
The number of MIS mining for each mining transaction of miners is calculated as follows:
First, calculate the number of MIS mining rewards N contained in the block of the packaged mining transaction. If the height difference between the block and the previous block containing the mining transaction is y, then N = y * 20.
The MIS mining quantity of this mining transaction is M, then M=Xi/(📷)×N. Among them, X is the ranking of the MIS pledge amount in the block, and those who pledge the same amount of MIS have the same ranking.
Few official pre-mining, while 90% belongs to the community
Based on the official announcement, the distribution of MIS is:
The total amount of MIS is 1 billion, 10% is reserved for early project promotion, the remaining 90% are produced by mining, in which 75% are directly awarded to data providers, 10% to developers, and 5% as reward for arbitration nodes and ecological incentive. The production of mining will be progressively decreased and released with ETH. For some current popular VC-invested projects, institutional holdings hold more than half of blocks and unlock the block every month, which is a huge stress for ordinary pledge users. Many projects also went wrong because institutional investors do not abide by the rules. For MIS, because there is fewer official pre-mining, the selling pressure will be smaller, which is more in line with the value of the blockchain.
The release plan of developer and arbitration node and ecological incentive is as follows:
The release plan of data provider incentive is as follows:
The MIS awarded per block reduces by 10% in every 4 million blocks, and the reward per block at present is 20 MIS.
We can see that the allocation of MIS follows the following principles.
First of all, as MIS is the platform certificate of Themis, it is very reasonable to reserve 10% of MIS for early project promotion.
Secondly, 90% of MIS is produced through sustainable mining. This proportion can motivate contract users and miners to conduct contract mining, truly implementing the spirit of win-win community and token economy.
Finally, among the 90% of MIS, better incentive mechanisms have been adapted, mining reward ratios are subdivided, which can attract more investors to participate in mining.
Reasonable mining mechanism highlights the project value of Themis
Themis, as a public chain that provides a mechanism to solve the problems in Oracle Machine, has a unique charm in the value of MIS.
From the perspective of the number of tokens, the total amount of MIS is 1 billion, and the total mining pool is 900 million. 90% of the tokens are generated by mining, and the mining output gradually decreases its release with the Ethereum block, showing a great potential in its future added value. The earlier you participate in mining, the more profit you can gain.
From the perspective of Themis’s ecological design, Themis is committed to the original intention of building a price oracle. The data provider pays on-chain fees and pledges a certain amount of MIS, and determines the income obtained according to the scale of the pledge; the validator can make profit from challenging the data. Also, any smart contract developer or user need to pay the corresponding fee when calling Themis, and this part of the profit will be distributed to the data provider in proportion. Through this design, a logical closed loop is completed to ensure the healthy operation of the entire ecology and achieve the goal of mutual benefit. In Themis, all parties in the ecology can work together to grow more wealth.
In all, MIS has a huge potential for future development and arbitrage, and of course, a great profit potential as well.
Today, public chains like Themis are not just a technology platform, but also a symbol of future economic operation mode which connect between the blockchain and the real world. Themis, with a fair, justice and open network through mining, is building a strong token ecology, connecting external chain data and the systems, realising data interaction between blockchain and the real world, and more importantly, creating a new mode of token economy.
Written by TokenInsightsubmitted by CoinExcom to btc [link] [comments]
Published by tokenin.cn
OutlookThe development of CoinEx Chain contributes to the future development of CoinEx’s centralized and decentralized exchanges; the concept of trichain operation simplifies the functions of each chain, improving their performance. At present, there are few exchanges working on the public chain, and no fierce competition has occurred.
ConclusionConsidering the status and development prospects of the project, TokenInsight gives CoinEx a rating of BB with a stable outlook.
1. Multidimensional evaluation
2. Project analysisCoinEx (CoinEx Technology Limited) was established in December 2017 and is headquartered in Hong Kong, China. It is a sub-brand of the ViaBTC mining pool. At present, CoinEx’s business scope includes CoinEx exchange, CoinEx public chain, and CoinEx decentralized exchange. The current development focus of the CoinEx platform are public chain and exchange. The main purpose of the public chain is to build a decentralized exchange (DEX) infrastructure and an ecosystem around DEX.
CoinEx business structure，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
2.1 Introduction“ CoinEx Chain uses the parallel operation of three chains which are DEX, Smart, and Privacy, as well as cross-chain technologies to create a rich decentralized exchange ecosystem and blockchain financial infrastructure.
The core of CoinEx’s early business was the exchange, consisted of two major categories which were spot and derivatives trading. Currently, there are 123 trading currencies online, covering 302 trading pairs. On June 28, 2019, CoinEx released the CoinEx Chain public chain white paper, aiming to build a decentralized trading system (CoinEx DEX) with community-based operations and transparent transaction rules, and providing user-controlled asset trading scenario by the highest technical standards in the industry; CoinEx Chain has become another development focus of CoinEx. CoinEx Token (CET), which was originally a native token of the CoinEx exchange, will also be developed mainly as a built-in token of the public chain.
CoinEx Chain is a public chain based on the Tendermint consensus protocol and Cosmos SDK, and it uses POS mechanism. CoinEx Chain plans to support 42 nodes when the project starts, and any entity in the ecosystem can participate in the validator’s campaign by staking CET. CoinEx Chain will use the new block reward and the transaction fee contained in the block as the reward for running the node.
CoinEx Chain has developed three public chains with different positioning and different functions in order to meet the needs of blockchain transactions for transaction performance, smart contracts, and privacy protection at the same time. They operate in parallel and collaborate with each other through cross-chain technology. At present, the block time of the public chain is between 2–3 seconds. According to the observation of TokenInsight, the block time is stable, but the number of transactions through the CoinEx public chain is still low at present, the number of transactions in 24 hours is about 30,000; The TPS on public chain disclosed by CoinEx can reach up to 1500 per second.
CoinEx Chain uses a trichain parallel model to build a more vibrant ecosystem around DEX. The three chains are DEX public chain, Smart public chain, and Privacy public chain, respectively responsible for decentralized transactions, smart contracts, and on-chain privacy protection.
CETs that need to participate in complex financial contracts can be transferred to the Smart public chain through the DEX public chain, then moved back to the DEX public chain after that. CET tokens that need to participate in token confusion can also be carried out through the privacy transaction of the Privacy public chain, and can eventually be returned to the DEX public chain. The three public chains are responsible for their respective duties, and they are interconnected through the cross-chain technology through the relay mechanism. In addition to ensuring their respective transaction processing speed and functional attributes, they can also jointly provide richer and safer functions, and synergistically constitute the CoinEx decentralized public chain ecosystem.
In addition, CoinEx Chain also supports any participant to issue new tokens on the chain and create new trading pairs for the issued tokens. CoinEx Chain guarantees the circulation of new tokens by establishing a trading pair between the new token and CET.
2.2 Component architecture“ Tendermint Core and Cosmos SDK have improved the performance and operation capability of the blockchain. The SDK packaging reduces the consideration of non-related logic, hence reducing the development complexity.
CoinEx Chain is based on Tendermint Core and Cosmos SDK, both of which have brought a big boost to the development of CoinEx public chain performance. Cosmos-SDK will implement the application logic of the blockchain. Together with the Tendermint consensus engine, it implements the three-layer architecture of the CoinEx public chain: the application layer, the consensus layer, and the network layer.
Tendermint is based on the state machine replication technology and is suitable for blockchain ledger storage. It is a list of transactions making consensus with Byzantine fault tolerance, the transactions are executed in the same order, and eventually the same state is obtained. Tendermint can be used to build various distributed applications.
Cosmos-SDK is a blockchain framework that supports the construction of multiple assets with a consensus mechanism of POS (Proof of Stake) or POA (Proof of Authority). The goal of the Cosmos SDK is to allow developers to easily build custom blockchains from 0, while enabling the interaction with other blockchains.
Cosmos-SDK is a blockchain framework that supports the construction of multiple assets with a consensus mechanism of POS (Proof of Stake) or POA (Proof of Authority). The goal of the Cosmos SDK is to allow developers to easily build custom blockchains from 0, while enabling the interaction with other blockchains. The blockchain development framework Cosmos SDK implements general functions such as account management, community governance, and staking in a modular form. Therefore, using the Cosmos SDK to build a public chain can simplify development procedures and facilitate operation. Tendermint is a fixed protocol in a partially synchronized environment, which can achieve throughput within a delay range of the network and each process itself. The CoinEx public chain is developed based on both, improving the performance and operability of the blockchain. The SDK packaging further reduces considerations of non-related logic and reduces the complexity of developers creating. The two components of Tendermint and Cosmos SDK are connected and interacted through the Application Blockchain Interface.
Cosmos SDK and Tendermint interworking structure，Source:CoinEx; TokenInsight
2.3 Project public chain planningThe development plan of the CoinEx public chain is to create a series of public chains with specific application directions, including:
2.4 Operation analysis“ The CoinEx platform publishes monthly ecosystem reports with high transparency; but the monthly reports are limited to contents about transactions and development, and lack progress in ecosystem and community construction, making them relatively simple.
2.4.1 Disclosure of ecosystem information
Operational risks have a direct impact on platform users. Whether platform operations are smooth and whether there is transparency are issues that platform users care about.
The CoinEx platform was established in 2017 and has around 3 years of development. It is also one of the platforms that has been developing for a long time in the exchange industry. It has obtained a digital currency trading license issued by the Estonian Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), and the platform’s compliance is guaranteed to some degree.
The actual operation of the CoinEx platform will be displayed in the form of ecosystem monthly reports. The monthly report contains various types of content such as online currencies, new activities, plans for the next month, and ecosystem dynamics. It involves multiple business dimensions including the CoinEx exchange, CoinEx Public Chain, and CET token.
Snippet of a CoinEx ecosystem monthly report，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
CoinEx Chain released its development roadmap for the four quarters of 2020 in January 2020. The roadmap shows that CoinEx Chain will undergo major updates on smart contracts and DEX hard fork upgrades. The project roadmap is basically planned on a monthly basis, with a clear plan and a clear direction of development.
CoinEx Public Chain 2020 Development Roadmap，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
In addition to the development route planned in the roadmap, CoinEx public chain also discloses its goals for next month in its monthly ecological report. The project’s main net was launched online in November 2019. According to TokenInsight’s review of the development of CoinEx public chain from January to April and the disclosure of the project’s ecosystem monthly report, the project’s plan about development of the smart contract Demo in February failed to be completed as planned; the project completed launching of the new version of the blockchain browser and the Asian Atlantis upgrade; the smart contract virtual machine development was planned to be completed in April, but the progress related to supporting cross-chain agreements was not disclosed yet.
Overall, the project’s development route planning is clear, and the project’s development schedule is consistent with the plan, but there are still some discrepancies. Operation and development information is disclosed every month, and information transparency is high.
3. Industry & CompetitorsThe earliest origin of the exchange layout in the public chain field began in early 2018 when Binance released an announcement to start the development of the Binance Public Chain officially. In June of the same year, Huobi announced at its brand upgrade conference that it will combine the technical capabilities of the Huobi technical team and the community developers to develop the Huobi public chain called “Huobi Chain”. In December of the same year, OK Group announced the launch of its self-developed public chain OKchain, dedicating to provide underlying technical support and services for startups stationed in B-Labs.
The successful launch of the public chain brings huge strategic significance to the exchange, which can not only improve the performance of the existing business of the exchange but also achieve further expansion of its influence. As one of the most important blockchain infrastructures, the public chain can benefit the exchanges behind it.
As a platform for developing public chain technology exchanges, CoinEx’s main competitors in the field of public chain development include Binance, Huobi, and OKEx. Although they are all exchange platforms for deploying public chains, the above four are different in terms of specific functions, economic models, and critical points of the public chain.
3.1 Development progress comparisonIn 2019, Binance became the first exchange to launch a public chain among all digital asset exchanges, and its main product is Binance exchange (DEX). In April 2020, Binance announced the launch of a second smart contract chain, using Ethereum’s virtual machine, so that developers can build decentralized applications without affecting the performance and functionality of their original chain.
OKEx launched OKChain’s testnet in February 2020 and completed open source two months later. OKChain is designed as the basis of large-scale blockchain-driven business applications, with the characteristics of source code decentralization, point-to-point, irreversibility, and efficient autonomy.
Huobi released Huobi Chain for the first time in July 2019, the code is open source, and the testnet was released in February 2020. As a “regulator-friendly financial blockchain”, Huobi Chain focuses on providing compliance services for companies and financial institutions.
The CoinEx public chain officially completed the main online launch in November 2019 and completed the new block browser’s launch in March 2020. On April 3, 2020, CoinEx DEX uploaded the underlying code to Github to achieve open source. The CoinEx public chain is more inclined to build a full DEX ecosystem to achieve a one-stop solution for issuing, listing, storing, and trading. The long-term goal is to create a blockchain financial infrastructure.
3.2 Comparison of economic modelsAt present, the exchange is more inclined to use its existing platform currency as the native token of the public chain in the construction of public chain ecology. CoinEx’s CET, Binance’s BNB, and Huobi’s HT all fall into this category. OKEx is the only exchange that issues new tokens for its OKChain, which means OKT is the only ‘inflation token’ in the exchange’s public chain, while CET, HT, and BNB are all deflationary.
3.3 Decentralization of public chainThe initial number of CoinEx public chain verification nodes is 42, which is currently the most decentralized among all exchange public chains, and able to take both efficiency and decentralization into account; OKChain also currently has a relatively high degree of decentralization in the exchange public chain (21 verification nodes), its nodes have a high degree of autonomy; by contrast, Binance still firmly controls the operation of nodes and transactions; In terms of encourages cooperation between regulators and the private financial aspects, Huobi provides a lesser degree of decentralization. Huobi Chain uses a variant of the DPoS consensus algorithm to provide functions such as “supervision nodes”, allowing regulators to become validators.
Comparison of some dimensions of CoinEx, Huobi, Binance and OKEx public chain，Source: TokenInsight
4. Token EconomyCoinEx Token (CET) is a native token of the CoinEx ecosystem. It was issued in January 2018. Token holders can enjoy some user value-added services within the ecosystem. Currently, it is mainly used as a native token on the CoinEx Chain. As of 11 am on April 23, 2020, the current circulation of CET tokens in the market is 3,215,354,906.31, with a total of 5,842,177,609.53. CET tokens will not be further issued or inflated. Currently, daily repurchase and quarterly destruction are carried out. The repurchase destruction dynamics can now be tracked real-time on the CET repurchase system on the platform.
4.1 Token DistributionThe CET token used to be based on the ERC-20 token developed by Ethereum. Since the CoinEx Chain mainnet was launched in November 2019, some ERC-20 CET tokens have been mapped to the mainnet CET, and the rest of the CET will be mapped before November 10, 2020. CET holders need to deposit ERC-20 CET to the COinEX exchange, and the exchange will conduct the main network mapping.
At present, CET is mainly circulated in the form of mainnet tokens, and only a small portion of ERC-20 CET has not been mapped. The distribution of token holdings currently circulating on the mainnet can be seen in the figure below. At present, the number of tokens held by the top ten holders accounts for about 60.44% of all mainnet CET tokens.
Distribution of CET token holding addresses，Source: Etherscan; TokenInsight
The following figure shows the initial distribution of tokens after the mainnet mapping preset by CoinEx. From the initial distribution map of CET, it shows that, after mapping, a large portion of CET remains concentrated in the hands of the team (31%), and the actual number of CET circulating in the market only accounts for 49% of the total.
The initial distribution of CET token，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
After the main net mapping, the 31% of the total CET (1.8 billion) held by the team will be gradually unlocked in the five years from 2020 to 2024, and 360 million CET will be unlocked each year. By 2024, the CET held by the team will be completely unlocked. From the current CET dynamics, the CET share held by some teams has been used for destruction purposes to achieve the purpose of CET austerity. If the frozen 1.8 billion CET held by the team are used for similar purposes, the development of CET and its platform can benefit from it.
Team’s CET unlocking plan，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
4.2 Token economic model4.2.1 Deflation mechanism
Since the CET token went online in January 2018, CoinEx has increased the circulation of CET through airdrops, transaction fee refunds, operation promotion, and team unlocking. As one of the existing platform coins with long development time, the deflation mechanism of CET token has undergone a series of changes with the development of the industry. In 2018, when the concept of coin-based mining prevailed, CET used transaction mining, stake mining, and pending order mining, which were cancelled in October, December and, April respectively of the following year.
The repurchase and destruction model currently used by CET was updated by CoinEx on April 11, 2020. The original CET quarterly repurchase and destruction policy of the platform will be adjusted to daily repurchase and quarterly destruction. After the implementation of the daily repurchase policy, CoinEx will take out 50% of the daily fee income for CET repurchase in the secondary market and implement quarterly destruction until the total remaining circulation is 3 billion (currently about 5.8 billion).
At the same time that CoinEx updated the repurchase and destruction plan on April 11, the platform also launched a page dedicated to displaying CET repurchase information, so that users can clearly understand the progress of CET repurchase and destruction.
As of April 23, 2020, the platform has destroyed 4,157,822,390.46 CET tokens, accounting for 41.6% of the initial total issuance. At the end of January 2019, it had destroyed 4 billion CETs (single destruction volume peak) at the end of this quarter. The number of CETs to be destroyed is 3,422,983.56.
CET historical destruction data，Source: CoinEx; TokenInsight
4.2.2 Application scenarios
The current usage scenarios of CET are discounted platform transaction fees, VIP services, special activities rights and interests, CoinEx Chain internal circulation fuel, and use of external scenarios.
Deduction and discount of platform transaction fees
CoinEx platform users can use CET to deduct transaction fees when conducting transactions within the platform. At the same time, using CET to pay transaction fees can enjoy the exclusive preferential rates provided by the platform.
CET fee discount amount，Source：CoinEx; TokenInsight
Holding a certain number of CETs can make a user become a platform VIP user. Users can also use CET to purchase platform VIPs to obtain corresponding privileges such as discounted rates, accelerated withdrawals, and exclusive customers.
Special activity rights
CET holders can enjoy special rights and interests in platform marketing activities, such as participating in the airdrop of tokens on the platform or accelerating opportunities for high-quality projects.
CoinEx Chain built-in token
CET will serve as a native token of CoinEx Chain, circulate and serve as fuel in CoinEx Chain, and users can also use CET to invest or trade other digital assets. In addition, CET can also serve as transaction fees and function fees (issuing Token, creating new trading pairs, account activation), etc. in the platform, and users can also participate in the campaign of validators by staking CET tokens.
CET is currently used as a circulation token as well for CoinEx DEX to issue tokens, create orders, Bancor, address activation, set address aliases, and other application scenarios.
In general, the types of application scenarios of CET are not plenty enough. In order to better develop the internal ecosystem of the platform, it is necessary to design and develop more CET usage scenarios and incentive mechanisms to increase the retention rate of users while adding new users.
4.2.3 Token incentive
As the native token of the CoinEx public chain, CET will be used as a block incentive to increase community participation after the mainnet of the public chain launched. The 315 million CET held by the foundation in the total CET issuance will be used to incentivize initial verification nodes and Staking participants.
CET annual incentive information，Source：CoinEx; TokenInsight
5. Team & Partners
5.1 Core team membersAmong the core team members of CoinEx, the technical members account for a relatively large proportion. The technical team’s overall ability is good and the team members have different technical experience backgrounds including cryptography, underlying protocols, marketing, and operations. The team has rich blockchain industry experience, especially the chief developer, who has about 13 years of development industry experience.
5.2 Investment institutions and partnersCoinEx’s investment is led by Bitmain and its main partners include Matrixport, Bitcoin.com, CoinBull, Consensus Lab, BTC.com, BTC.top, Hoo Exchange, Wa Yi, ChainFor.com, etc.
Investment institutions and major partners have rich experience in the industry, which can promote the development of projects to a certain extent. However, the current industry involved by the partners is not wide enough, and it will have a limited role in promoting the future of CoinEx’s enriching business lines and increasing ecosystem functions.
6. Community AnalysisAccording to TokenInsight’s research of the CoinEx platform community, as of April 23, 2020, its official Twitter has 19,800 followers and 932 tweets; the official Telegram has 45 official groups, 3 in Chinese and English, and the other is Korean, Arabic, Vietnamese, Indian and other small language groups, with a total number of 56088 people; the current number of followers on Facebook accounts is 3,107. The overall community followers still have a lot of room for improvement, and community activeness needs to be improved.
Number of followers on the CoinEx social platform，Source:TokenInsight
At present, the project’s search popularity and official website visits are both top-notch, and monthly visits have slowly returned to their previous visit levels after experiencing a significant decline in December 2019.
CoinEx visit popularity，Source: TokenInsight, Similarweb, Google
At present, the visitors of the CoinEx website are distributed in multiple countries, and there are no visits concentration from a single country or region. Therefore, CoinEx’s comprehensive global influence is widely distributed and has a reasonable degree of internationalization.
CoinEx official website’s top 5 countries by number of visitors，Source: CoinEx, TokenInsight
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Museum has played the role of a time recorder. Talking about bitcoin, more than ten years has passed since the creation of it. Although it is uncomparable to the stock market with a hundred years of history, during the ten years, in the different stages of the development of bitcoin and blockchain have continuously poured in geeks, miners, speculators, newbies, leaving keywords such as sudden rich, myth, scam, belief, revolution, etc.
There are also many “old objects” with stories in the “Museum” of the cryptocurrency realm. On Museum Day, let ’s review the stories brought by these “old objects”.
The First Digital Currency White Paper — Bitcoin White Paper
On Oct. 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto released the Bitcoin white paper — A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System in the cryptographic mail group where he belongs, and Bitcoin was born since then.
A white paper is a document that explains the purpose and technology used in cryptocurrency. Usually a cryptocurrency uses the white paper to help people understand what it provides, and it is also an important information channel for investors to understand a project. Therefore, the level of the white paper affects people’s confidence towards the coin.
In a word, in the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry, the value of a white paper is equivalent to that of a standard financing speech. The white paper plays a vital role in this emerging market.
The First Public Bitcoin-Physical Transaction — Pizza
Since Satoshi Nakamoto mined the Bitcoin genesis block on January 3, 2009, Bitcoin has only been spread among the small crowd and has not realized its value.
Not until May 22, 2010, Bitcoin enthusiast “Laszlo Hanyecz” bought a pizza coupon worth $25 with 10,000 bitcoins. This is the first public bitcoin-physical transaction. Bitcoin has its price with 0.3 cents per bitcoin.
This day has also become the famous “Bitcoin Pizza Day” in Bitcoin history. Bitcoin as the imagination of the financial system has more practical significance. The tenth anniversary is coming. How will you commemorate it? Will you buy a pizza?
The First Digital Asset Exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com
After the birth of Bitcoin, in addition to mining, the only way to get Bitcoin in the early days was to conduct transactions on forums or IRC (commonly known as Internet Relay Chat). However, this method involves both long transaction time and great security risk.
In March 2010, the first digital asset exchange — Bitcoinmarket.com launched. However, due to lack of liquidity and transaction depth, it disappeared soon after its establishment, but Bitcoinmarket.com opened the era of the operation of the cryptocurrency realm exchange 1.0.
On June 9, 2011, China’s first Bitcoin exchange — Bitcoin China (BTCChina) launched. Its founder, Yang Linke, translated Bitcoin into Chinese “比特币” for the first time. In 2013, China’s bitcoin trading entered the golden age, and exchanges sprung up. China monopolized more than 90% of the world’s bitcoin transactions. Now, if the top three exchanges Binance, Huobi Global, OKEx are the Exchange 2.0, then the index exchange represented by 58COIN called the 3.0 version, leading the trend.
The First Generation of High-Performance Miner — ASIC Miner
When Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin, the only way to get it is to use computers (including home computers) to mine, mainly relying on the CPU to calculate. However, as the value of digital currencies such as Bitcoin has become higher and higher, mining has become an industry with the competition is getting fiercer, accompanied by increasing difficulty of mining. Therefore, hardware performance competition starts.
In July 2012, the genius Jiang Xinyu (Internet nickname is “Friedcat”) from the junior class of the University of Science and Technology declared at the forum that he could make ASIC miners (chips). As far as mining computing power is concerned, ASICs can be tens of thousands or more higher than the same-generation CPUs and GPUs.
At the beginning of 2013, Zhang Nanqian (Pumpkin Zhang), a suspended doctoral student from the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, developed the ASIC miner and named it “Avalon”.
In June 2013, the Friedcat’s miner USB was finally released, and it maintained 20% of the computing power of the entire network.
At the end of 2013, Wu Jihan, used the tens of millions yuan earned from Friedcat through investment, worked together with Jenke group, to develop the Antminer S1. Since then, the miner manufacturer Bitmain began to enter the stage of history.
It is no exaggeration to say that Friedcat and Zhang Nangeng have opened the domestic “mining” era.
The Birthplace of China’s Bitcoin — Garage Coffee
It is not only the “old objects” that record history, but also a place that everyone in the cryptocurrency realm aspires to.
Guo Hongcai once said, “Without no The Garage Café, there will be no cryptocurrency realm today. Since it is a very mysterious place that all waves of people from the café joint together to create today’s digital asset industry.
▲ In March 2013, American student Jake Smith successfully purchased a cup of coffee at The Garage Café with 0.131 bitcoins. This move attracted the attention of CCTV, and it conducted an interview.
Indeed, The Garage Café is the world ’s first entrepreneurial-themed coffee shop. It has been legendary since its establishment in 2011. The Garage Cafét is not only the core coordinate on China’s Bitcoin map, but also the birthplace of the Chinese cryptocurrency circle, where digital asset realm tycoons including Guo Hongcai, Zhao Dong, Li Xiaolai, Li Lin have made their ways.
The development of digital currency is only 11 years old. Through these “old objects”, we review the various stories of this wave of technology together, hoping to help you understand the development process of the digital currency field. Meanwhile, I also remind all practitioners to use history as a mirror and forge ahead.
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